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      Gαi Activation Assay Kit

      • 数据表
      • 参考文献
      • 概述

        Configuration-specific Monoclonal Antibody Based
        Gαi Activation Assay Kit
        Catalog Number80301

        20 assays

        Product Description

            A structurally diverse repertoire of ligands, from photons to large peptides, activates G protein-coupled
        receptors (GPCRs) to elicit their physiological functions. Ligand-bound GPCRs, in turn, function as
        guanine nucleotide exchange factors catalyzing the exchange of GDP bound on the Gα subunit with
        GTP in the presence of Gβγ, causing the dissociation of the Gα subunit from the Gβγ dimer to form
        two functional units (Gα and Gβγ). Both Gα and Gβγ subunits signal to various cellular signaling
        pathways. Based on the sequence and functional homologies, G proteins are grouped into four families:

        Gs, Gi, Gq, and G12.

            Gαi family is the largest family of G proteins. They relay signals from many GPCRs to regualte
        various biological functions. There were no direct methods to measure the activation of Gαi proteins
        by receptors (until this assay kit). Most reports used one of the downstream pathway, i.e. the
        inhibition of adenylyl cyclases, as a readout. Alternatively, sensitivity to pertussis toxin (PTX) was

        used as an indicator of possible Gαi proteins invovled in a signaling pathway.

            NewEast Biosciences Gαi Activation Assay Kit provides a direct measurement of the activation of Gαi
        proteins. This is a simple and fast tool to monitor the activation of Gαi. Each kit provides sufficient

        quantities to perform 20 assays.

            NewEast Biosciences Gαi Activation Assay Kit is based on the monoclonal antibody specifically
        recognizing the active GTP-bound Gαi proteins. This monoclonal antibody has much lower affinity
        towards the inactive Gαi proteins. Therefore, after activation by receptor signals, active GTP-bound
        i proteins could be immunoprecipitated by this monoclonal antibody and further quantified by
        western blot with another anti- Gαi antibody. 

        Assay Principle

            NewEast Biosciences Gαi Activation Assay Kit is an immunoprecipitation/western blot assay to
        measure the levels of active GTP-bound Gαi proteins, either from cell extracts or from in vitro GTPγS
        loaded Gαi proteins. Briefly, the anti-active Gαi monoclonal antibody will specifically bind to active
        i protein. This antibody/ Gαi complex will then be pulled down by protein A/G agarose. The

        precipitated active Gαi proteins will be detected by immunoblots with another anti-Gαi antibody. 

        Kit Components

        1. Anti-active Gαi, Mouse Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog No. 26901): One vial – 22 μL (1mg/mL) in PBS,     pH 7.4, contained 50% glycerol. This antibody specifically recognizes GTP- Gαi from all vertebrates.

        2. Protein A/G Agarose (Catalog No. 30301): One vial – 400 μL of 50% slurry.

        3. 5X Assay/Lysis Buffer (Catalog No. 30303): One bottle – 30 mL of 250 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4,750
            mMNaCl, 5 mM EDTA, 5% Triton X-100.

        4. Anti-Gαi, Mouse Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog No. 26003): One vial – 22 μL(1 mg/mL) in PBS, pH 7.4,     contained 50% glycerol.
        5. 100 X GTPγS (Catalog No. 30302): One vial –100 μL at 10 mM, use 5 μL of GTPγS for
        GTP-labeling of 0.5 mL of cell lysate.
        6. 100 X GDP (Catalog No. 30304): One vial –100 μL at 100 mM, use 5 μL of GDP for
        GDP-labeling of 0.5 mL of cell lysate. 


        Store all kit components at 4oC until their expiration dates.  

        Materials Needed but Not Supplied

        1. Stimulated and non-stimulated cell lysates
        2. Protease inhibitors
        3. 4 °C tube rocker or shaker
        4. 1 M MgCl2
        5. 2X reducing SDS-PAGE sample buffer
        6. Electrophoresis and immunoblotting systems
        7. Immunoblotting wash buffer such as TBST (10 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4, 0.15 M NaCl, 0.05 %
        8. Immunoblotting blocking buffer (TBST containing 5 % Non-fat Dry Milk or 3 % BSA)
        9. PVDF or nitrocellulose membrane
        10. Secondary Antibody

        11. ECL Detection Reagents 

        Reagent Preparation

        ? 1X Assay/Lysis Buffer: Mix the 5X Stock briefly and dilute to 1X in deionized water. Just prior to
        usage, add protease inhibitors such as 1 mM PMSF, 10 μg/mL leupeptin, and 10 μg/mL aprotinin. 

        Sample Preparation

        Adherent Cells

        1. Culture cells (one 10-cm plate, ~ 107cells) to approximately 80-90 % confluence. Stimulate cells with
                    activator or inhibitor as desired.

        2. Aspirate the culture media and wash twice with ice-cold PBS.

        3. Completely remove the final PBS wash and add ice-cold 1X Assay/Lysis Buffer to the cells (0.5- 1
                    mL per10 cm tissue culture plate).

        4. Place the culture plates on ice for 10-20 minutes.

        5. Detach the cells from the plates by scraping with a cell scraper.

        6. Transfer the lysates to appropriate size tubes and place on ice.

        7. If nuclear lysis occurs, the cell lysates may become very viscous and difficult to pipette. If this occurs,
                 lysates can be passed through a 27?-gauge syringe needle 3-4 times to shear the genomic DNA. 
        Clear          the  lysates by centrifugation for 10 minutes (12,000 x g at 4 °C).

        8. Collect the supernatant and store samples (~1-2 mg of total proteins) on ice for immediate use,or snap
                    freeze and store at - 70 °C for future use.

        Suspension Cells

        1. Culture cells and stimulate with activator or inhibitor as desired.

        2. Perform a cell count, and then pellet the cells by centrifugation.

        3. Aspirate the culture media and wash twice with ice-cold PBS.

        4. Completely remove the final PBS wash and add ice-cold 1X Assay/Lysis Buffer to the cell pellet
                     (0.5 – 1 mL per 1 x 10

        5. Lyse the cells by repeated pipetting.

        6. Transfer the lysates to appropriate size tubes and place on ice.

        7. If nuclear lysis occurs, the cell lysates may become very viscous and difficult to pipette. If this occurs,
                     lysates can be passed through a 27?-gauge syringe needle 3-4 times to shear the 
        genomic DNA. 

        8. Clear the lysates by centrifugation for 10 minutes (12,000 x g at 4 °C).

        9. Collect the supernatant and store samples on ice for immediate use, or snap freeze and store at -70 °C
                    for future use.  

         In vitro GTPγS/GDP Protein Loading for positive and negative controls
            Note: In vivo stimulation of cells with receptor ligands might activate ~10 % of the available Gαi
        proteins, whereas in vitro GTPγS loading could activate ~50 % of the Gαi proteins that can be

        1. Aliquot 0.5 mL of each cell extract to two microfuge tubes.

        2. To each tube, add 5 μL of 1M MgCl2 (to 10 mM final concentration).

        3. Add 5 μL of 100X GTPγS (to 100 μM, final concentration) to one tube (positive control).

        4. Add 5 μL of 100X GDP (to 1 mM, final concentration) to the second tube (negative control).

        5. Incubate the tubes at 30°C for 90 minutes with agitation. 

        Assay Procedure

        I. Active Gαi Pull-Down Assay

        1. Aliquot 0.5 – 1 mL of cell lysate to a microcentrifuge tube.

        2. Adjust the volume of each sample to 1 mL with 1X Assay/Lysis Buffer.

        3. Add 1 μL anti-active Gαi monoclonal antibody (Cat. No. 26901) to the tube.

        4. Thoroughly resuspend the protein A/G agarose bead slurry by vortexing or titurating.

        5. Add 20 μL of resuspended bead slurry to each tube.

        6. Incubate the tubes at 4 °C for 1 hour with gentle agitation.

        7. Pellet the beads by centrifugation for 10 seconds at 12,000 x g.

        8. Aspirate and discard the supernatant, making sure not to disturb/remove the bead pellet.

        9. Wash the bead 3 times with 0.5 mL of 1X Assay/Lysis Buffer, centrifuging and aspirating each time.

        10. After the last wash, pellet the beads and carefully remove all the supernatant.

        11. Resuspend the bead pellet in 20 μL of 2X reducing SDS-PAGE sample buffer.

        12. Boil each sample for 5 minutes.

        13. Centrifuge each sample for 10 seconds at 12,000 x g. 

        II. Electrophoresis and Transfer

        1. Load 20 μL/well of pull-down supernatant to a polyacrylamide gel. Also, it’s recommended to include a
            pre-stained MW standard (as an indicator of a successful transfer in step 3).

        2. Perform SDS-PAGE as per the manufacturer’s instructions.

        3. Transfer the gel proteins to a PVDF or nitrocellulose membrane as per the manufacturer’s instructions.

        III. Immunoblotting and Detection (all steps are at room temperature, with agitation)

        1. Following the electroblotting step, immerse the PVDF membrane in 100% Methanol for 15 seconds, and
             then allow it to dry at room temperature for 5 minutes.

        Note: If Nitrocellulose is used instead of PVDF, this step should be skipped.

        2. Block the membrane with 5 % non-fat dry milk or 3 % BSA in TBST for 1 hr at room temperature with
            constant agitation.

        Incubate the membrane with anti-Gαi monoclonal antibody (Cat. No. 26003), freshly diluted
        1:100 ~ 1000 in 5 % non-fat dry milk or 3 % BSA/TBST, for 1-2 hr at room temperature with
        constant agitation.
        Note: To conserve antibody, incubations should be performed in a plastic bag.
        3. Wash the blotted membrane three times with TBST, 5 minutes each time.
        4. Incubate the membrane with a secondary antibody (e.g. goat anti-mouse IgG, HRP-conjugate),
        freshly diluted in 5 % non-fat dry milk or 3 % BSA/TBST, for 1 hr at room temperature with
        constant agitation.
        5. Wash the blotted membrane three times with TBST, 5 minutes each time.

        6. Use the detection method of your choice. 

        Example of Results

        The following figure demonstrates typical results seen with NewEast Biosciences Gαi Activation

        Assay Kit. One should use the data below for reference only. 


            Gαi activation assay. A. CHO cells were transfected with wild-type Gαi1 (lanes 1 and 2) or constitutively active Gαi1-Q204L (lane 3). Cell lysates were treated with GDP (lane 1) or GTPγS (lane 3). Lysates were then incubated with an anti-active Gαi monoclonal antibody (Cat. No. 26901) (top panel). The precipitated active Gαi was immunoblotted with an anti- Gαi monoclonal antibody (Cat. No. 26003). The bottom panel shows the Western blot with anti- Gαi monoclonal antibody (Cat.No.26003) of the cell lysates. B. HEK293 cells stably expressing human m2 mAChR were treated with(lane 2) or without (lane 1) carbachol. Cell lysates were then incubated with an anti-active Gαmonoclonal antibody (Cat. No. 26901) (top panel). The precipitated active Gαi was immunoblotted with an anti- Gαi rabbit polyclonal antibody (Cat. No. 21006). The bottom panel shows the Western blot with anti-tubulin of the cell lysates. 
        Related Products
        80301i Activation Assay Kit 20 assays ¥6800   
        26901Active Gαi-GTP Monoclonal Antibody 30 μL ¥4800
        26003Anti-Gαi Mouse Monoclonal Antibody 100 μL ¥2800
        21006Anti-Gαi Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody 100 μL ¥2600
        1.  Identification of novel signalling roles and targets for Galpha and Gbetagamma downstream of the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor in vascular smooth muscle cells
            Biochem J. 2013 Feb 15;450(1):209-19
        2.  CRH activation of different signaling pathways results in differential calcium signaling in human pregnant myometrium before and during labor
            J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Oct;97(10):E1851-61
        3.  CXCR4 activation defines a new subgroup of Sonic hedgehog-driven medulloblastoma
            Cancer Res. 2012 Jan 1;72(1):122-32
        4.  Regulation of estradiol and progesterone production by CRH-R1 and -R2 is through divergent signaling pathways in cultured human placental trophoblasts
            Endocrinology. 2012 Oct;153(10):4918-28
        5.  WNT-5A stimulates the GDP/GTP exchange at pertussis toxin-sensitive heterotrimeric G proteins
            Cell Signal. 2011 Mar;23(3):550-4
        6.  Heterotrimeric Galpha(i) proteins are regulated by lipopolysaccharide and are anti-inflammatory in endotoxemia and polymicrobial sepsis
            Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011 Mar;1813(3):466-72
        7.  Estrogen- and xenoestrogen-induced ERK signaling in pituitary tumor cells involves estrogen receptor-α interactions with G protein-αi and caveolin I
            Steroids Volume 77, Issue 5, April 2012, Pages 424–432
        8.  Na/H exchanger regulatory factors control parathyroid hormone receptor signaling by facilitating differential activation of G(alpha) protein subunits
            J Biol Chem. 2010 Aug 27;285(35):26976-86
        9.  Beta-arrestin- but not G protein-mediated signaling by the "decoy" receptor CXCR7
            Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Jan 12;107(2):628-32
        10.  Structural basis for activation of trimeric Gi proteins by multiple growth factor receptors via GIV/Girdin
            Mol Biol Cell. 2014 Nov 5;25(22):3654-71
        11.  Canonical and Non-canonical G-protein Signaling Helps Coordinate Actin Dynamics to Promote Macrophage Phagocytosis of Zymosan
            Mol Cell Biol. 2014 Nov 15;34(22):4186-99
        12.  Fatty Acid-binding Protein 5 (FABP5) Regulates Cognitive Function Both by Decreasing Anandamide Levels and by Activating the Nuclear Receptor Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) in the Brain
        J Biol Chem. 2014 May 2;289(18):12748-58

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